quinta-feira, 6 de setembro de 2012

Wind Power 101

Tal como num post anterior (link), vamos reutilizar o conceito do post "(...) 101" em que um dado conceito/tipo de energia é introduzido. Desta vez, o tema é a energia eólica!

Retirado do site Energy Eficciency and Renewable Energy - U.S. Department of Energy: Although all wind turbines operate on similar principles, several varieties are in use today. These include horizontal axis turbines and vertical axis turbines.

Horizontal Axis Turbines
Horizontal axis turbines are the most common turbine configuration used today. They consist of a tall tower, atop which sits a fan-like rotor that faces into or away from the wind, a generator, a controller, and other components. Most horizontal axis turbines built today are two- or three-bladed.

Horizontal axis turbines sit high atop towers to take advantage of the stronger and less turbulent wind at 100 feet (30 meters) or more aboveground. Each blade acts like an airplane wing, so when wind blows, a pocket of low-pressure air forms on the downwind side of the blade. The low-pressure air pocket then pulls the blade toward it, which causes the rotor to turn. This is called lift. The force of the lift is actually much stronger than the wind's force against the front side of the blade, which is called drag. The combination of lift and drag causes the rotor to spin like a propeller, and the turning shaft spins a generator to make electricity.

Vertical Axis Turbines
Vertical axis turbines are of two types: Savonius and Darrieus. Neither type is in wide use.

The Darrieus turbine (left) was invented in France in the 1920s. Often described as looking like an eggbeater, it has vertical blades that rotate into and out of the wind. Using aerodynamic lift, it can capture more energy than drag devices. (...)

The Savonius turbine (right) is S-shaped if viewed from above. This drag-type turbine turns relatively slowly but yields a high torque. It is useful for grinding grain, pumping water, and many other tasks, but its slow rotational speeds are not good for generating electricity. (...)

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